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Who were the Pikarts?

"Pikarti" was created by polishing the French word "beghard". The Beghards were already members of a religious sect in the 12th century. At the time we are going to tell you, the Hussites were condemned by the Catholic Church as pikarts, but they themselves called "pikarts" to those who went even further.


The fourteenth and twentieth 
a lot of evil happened in Tábor: 
the priests argued among themselves, 
and people go after whom they trust. 
On the one hand, Master Jicin, 
the priest Philip, Abraham, and Hrenov, 
Prokop Holý, Štěpán Pacovský. 
They joined the other side 
preacher Martínek Houska from Moravia, 
Jan Bydlinsky, Petr Kanis, 
Bartoš, Trsáček and Slepý Mikuláš. 
They called the body of the Lord an idol 
and the others would rather kill.  

Martin  (or also Martínek)  Bun  (in Old Bohemian Húska).  "A young priest from Moravia, with a chosen talent and an extremely excellent memory, Martin called the Loquis (according to eloquence), because he fearlessly proclaimed the ideas not of the doctors, but of his own."  He was probably a captivating speaker, which is why he was nicknamed Loquis. So in Czech someone like "Talk." 

"Master Vavřinec says that he was the chief sower of all the delusions of Tábor and not only a supporter, but also the perpetrator of the terrible heresy of Picarty; the other priests of Tábor were only his helpers."  He was the one who spoke out against the camp's teachings on baptism, on the body of God, and on priestly preaching. Of these three "pieces," the greatest uproar was the doctrine, rejecting the inviolability of the sacrament of God's sacrifice in the form of the Eucharistic miracle. According to Martínek, Christ had one body, so he could not be on several earthly altars at the same time.  "The sacrament of the altar is just greaves and a butterfly!"  (The butterfly was called a fake coin.) Why worship wine and the host, when Christ lives spiritually on the soil of Tabor in every fodder and in every drink of his faithful, without any means from the priest? Every good Christian could "bless" his food and drinks. Martin's teaching erased the last differences between the layman and the priest.  

"At that time, the camps in Soběslav, the city of the Lord of the Roses, publicly declared that any priest would find Mass in the chasuble to wish him to burn it with the chasuble. in their ordinances, their flocks and their churches, and they fled to places safer for them: so the poor of the peasants, having no priests, had to run for the Holy Communion to Tabor. "  Martínek started to have problems. The first report of these problems is from the end of January 1421. They were kind of custody. Martinek was arrested and imprisoned. On command  Oldřich Vávák from Hradec, who had him put in the tower. At that time, the theologians around the Hussite  Bishop Nicholas of Pelhřimov  they still kept that horrible secret under the hood. A few weeks later, however, they also had to admit the color, because about four hundred followers of the imprisoned Huska and preachers who thought the same - they were  Petr Kániš, Jan Bydlín, Mikuláš Slepý, Bartoš, Trsáček  and still others - they all dragged the village in Hradiště into an irreconcilable split.  


So they all argued together 
and Martínek were called pikhart, 
because of his followers 
they started doing weird things; 
they rejoiced in strange habits 
and preached around the houses.  

Mikuláš of Pelhřimov and  master Jan of Jičín  (which were radicals in Tábor) wrote a suing letter to Prague, addressed to the masters  Jakoubek from Stříbro  and  Jan of Příbram  (They were also Kalisniks, but moderates). It came to Jakoubek's words that all novelties have their time and that it is better not to rush in secondary matters so that there is no more harm than good among ordinary people. Now the camps themselves urged their university opponents to protect the Prague people from the outrageous heresy of Martin Huska and his followers.  

"These priests preached that Christ would come down to the earth, reign here, and bring glorious times in the mountains. The Holy Spirit would come down into the hearts of all the faithful, that there would be no need to learn from one another, but only the teachings of God everywhere; They also burned and tore books and other useful things, and they said: There will be such love and there will be people among them, that they will have all things in common, including women. Tábor priest  Prokop Holý, priest Bedřich, Markolt, Rohlík, Blažek Šeplavý, Štěpánek  and some others spoke of the body and blood of the Lord in such a way that it is not even appropriate to write about it, and they also spoke disgraceful words about other sacraments, did not believe in intercession of saints, did not hold fasts or vigils, blasphemed the sacred crucifixion, baptized in streams, did not ring , they did not want to serve Mass in churches, they did not recognize chasubles or other sacred needs for worship, they did not lift the body of the Lord at Mass, they did not want to bury the dead in the cemetery and said that other places were more suitable, they called Latin singing in churches by dog howling and barking Hail Mary, they ate meat on Friday and said it was not God's ordinance and that Friday was only the fifth day after Sunday, they did not keep the feasts of the Holy Apostles, the Virgin Mary and other saints and said that it was not necessary. "   

Žižka did not take the time to solve the Picarty problem. Not yet. He was still in charge of another job. She was of two kinds. First, he wrote a manifesto in which he warns knights, squires, townspeople and peasants of the Pilsen region against the alliance with  Sigismund  and all the lords who opposed God's commandments and commandments. There was no mention of work of the second kind in the manifesto, but the text left no one in doubt that the camps would continue to destroy and burn all those who would not give freedom to the four saving articles. "And we are not surprised that any man who is not faithful to God will not be to men. So you need to beware of them so that they will no longer betray you for your souls. But we believe in the Lord our God that he will keep us out of their cleverness.   

The first destination of his ride were the rich monasteries in Chotěšov and Kladruby. The town of Stříbro was saved only thanks to the fact that Žižek's scouts discovered the presence of Krasík's castle at the nearby castle.  Bohuslav of Švamberk. The governor of Tábor did not want to miss the meeting with an old acquaintance (opponent, of course). In less than two days, the camps occupied the ridge of the mountain, the bridge and the tower, defending access to the castle gate.  "When Bohuslav Švamberk, the lord of the castle, saw that he would not be able to resist, he was afraid and the science, if the camps penetrate the said castle with power, that at that time they would not leave him alive with all his people, so he asked them to send for Mr.  Peter, the said Zmrzlík, who at that time held the Kladruby monastery, which they seized, that he wanted to hand over the castle to him and not to another, and to go into his hands with his people. "   

Žižka overcame personal aversion and really sent for Zmrzlík. Bohuslav's people were allowed to leave freely, but the commander remained as a prisoner at the castle. At that time, no one knew (nor could he have guessed) that after Žižek's death it would be Bohuslav of Švamberk who would become the chief governor of Tábor. Silver breathed a second time when Žižka aimed it at Tachov. However, Tachov called for reinforcements in advance, so the governor did not dare to do so. Pilsen also lasted. A year ago, "City of the Sun," now a fortress of Catholics. After four months, he preferred to make an armistice with Pilsen, Silver, Domažlice and Tachov.  


So Žižka had peace for some time. So with warfare. At least for a while. But - what about the picarti? He and Mikuláš Biskupec took comfort in the hope that the former brothers and sisters would find their way back in faith, but in the meantime there were problems with Prague. Problems of the Picartan species. But after all, just before the picnic, the people of Prague were strongly warned by their colleagues from Tábor?! ... They were, but the warning, which was systematically heard from all Prague preachers, had the opposite effect. Heresy spread even more. It was one group - the other was represented by the people of Prague, who were not only against the Picartas, but also against the camps. It was a real mess. Some of Žižek's soldiers no longer even hid that their alliance with the Praguers did not particularly like it. Priest Antoch stated that serving the people of Prague is the same as serving the cast beast Antichrist, whose corner is the Old Town councilors and the other is the university masters.  

"That is why the camps who were in Prague at the time split up, so some were left alone with President Žižka in Prague, others left with the priests who carried the body of Christ.  It was a riot in Žižek's army. It can't be called otherwise. On the day of the scheduled departure from Prague, when the camps were to go with the Praguers to deal with another city, Beroun, on that day part of the Tábor army refused to obey the governor. Žižka did not hesitate to step in with power and forced the rebels to return. He preached the preacher, who was said to be insane, (face to face, it didn't work insidiously from behind at the time), while he took the seduced soldiers at his mercy to calm the rebellious surface. He probably remembered this rebellion well. He won't be so generous next time. Next time, it won't do a few slaps anymore.  

"At that time the Picartian heretics preached many wandering and heretical articles in the regions, among them that heresy is to kneel before the sacrament of the altar, because it does not contain the true body of Christ, but only bread and mana, because Christ entered heaven with his whole body and did not remain. There is nothing but consecrated bread and wine to be received for strengthening against spiritual enemies. Furthermore, a man who can begettable if his wife is old or infertile can release her and bring her young. It is no more worthy than the hand of any good layman. So they preached many other erroneous articles. "   

Could these heretics, among other heretics, have survived the Hradiště of Tábor Mountain? They couldn't. Not that no one sympathized with the few hundred brothers and sisters, yes, for example  Vaclav Koranda, and still sure  preacher Antoch  - they had an understanding for Martin Húska, but they didn't get it anymore  Petr Kániš  and other Picartan spokesmen who went far beyond their imprisoned kind. The coexistence of both Tábor groups had to end. By violent displacement or voluntary departure of a minority. And there was the second, but ... also the first. This means that although they left alone, at the same time someone "helped them." Because he was staying at Tábor Žižka at that time, it was probably he who helped them with the departure. 

Eventually, the scoundrels left Tábor. 

There were three hundred of them with women and children. 
They now lived in Příběnice, 
at the castle and down in the village.  

Příběnice. So it is clear to us where the picartes from Tábor went. We came across them once when the Hussites conquered them. Yes, it was with the curious contribution of Václav Koranda, the temporary residence there at the time, because he was imprisoned in Příběnice. He commanded the relatives  Zbyněk of Buchlov, or perhaps one of the other governors of Tábor. He did not let Pikarty into the castle, but the abandoned town of Latrán in the story fort came to life with feverish bustle. The picartas were accompanied by a scandalous reputation. It terrified the Kališniks and the mischievous annoyance among the Catholics. The religious ecstasy of the minds and the disruption of family ties all provided a free field for the not-so-poor elements. However, the camps did not leave the story cards in the room.  

Their followers then at that moment 
expelled from Příběnice, 
and so the sinners went into the woods, 
somewhere against Dražice behind the Lužnice, 
but they were only there for a while: 
when Žižka found out, 
he immediately went to them with the army 
and brought them to Klokoty. 
Then they went to the shovel 
and persuaded them for a long time 
to leave their delusion.  

In the wooded terrain, Žižka did not have much to do with picarty. They defended themselves, but succumbed to superiority. They were just as desperate to defend themselves when preachers came after them. As far as we know, none of the picarty called off. They had a choice, Žižka showed conciliation for a while, but they did not take the chance. They chose a border.  "At the urging of the said Žižka, they all did not want to give up their delusions, but walked merrily into the flames of fire with a smile, saying that today they will reign in Christ with Christ."   

Those who managed to escape settled on a lonely fortified settlement (it could have been Ohraženice on the right bank of the Lužnice), and perhaps in other places by the river. And not only at the Lužnice. Part of the picartas also went to Nežárka. They liked one island in the middle of the river. Where it was, it is impossible to find out exactly today, there are more peninsulas in the river, surrounded on one side by the river and on the other by streams, but they probably found refuge in a place called Ostrov and where a Renaissance fortress was later built, later rebuilt into castle, then serving as a granary and today dilapidated as a warehouse. It got its name from the situation in the middle of the ponds. Hamr used to stand here and today's village also bears the name Hamr. The non-conformist group got rid of the owner of the neighboring village of Val in a simple way - they cut off his head and tied poor Hanuš's body by the leg and threw him into Nežárka. If any of the picartists made history, it was these. Even then they were called adamites.  

Many gathered there for strange ceremonies 
and others ran completely naked. 
All because some 
not having much ingenuity 
they fasted too much 
and they went out of their minds. 
They wanted God to reveal his will to them 
and in the meantime they have fallen victim to the devil.  

What was the Adamite team on the bank of the South Bohemian river doing? Žižka wrote a kind of warning circular with which he warned against Adamites. According to him, they rejected any education (including the Bible), which they justified by the fact that they have God's law written in their hearts. They were no different from other picartists who claimed that there is no heaven and hell, but only good and evil, that it is not necessary to pray (at least not to exaggerate) that the church is useless and that God is everywhere. However, it was somewhat worse with the Picartan view that the Holy Spirit is more perfect than Christ. However, they did not go down in history ... They got there for something completely different. Firstly, because they organized their small community (there were barely a few dozen), and also somewhat ... how to put it politely: a lifestyle without conventions.  

What is it all about adamites? There's a lot of it. For example, during their ceremonies they recited ten (which was perhaps commendable), then danced around the fire (still nothing offensive), after which they split into pairs, who went into seclusion to fuck and after bathing they went to bathe in the river. That sounds a little wild. We must admit that this submission is unlikely, but that's how it was written. He wrote about them  Eneáš Silvius Piccolomini.  "Another ungodly and previously unheard heresy has emerged in the Czech Republic. A picart penetrated from Belgium, crossed the Rhine, through Germany to the Czech Republic, where he gained some confidence and in a short time attracted a large crowd of men and women, ordered them to walk naked. And he called them Adamites: and he dwelt in an island surrounded by the river of the floodplain, claiming to be the Son of God, and his name was Adam.  And this Adam, he was a self-proclaimed messiah, in his own name  Rohan. Even before he started his career as an adamite, he did not work in any of Belgium, as Eneáš Silvius fetched, but he made his living as a blacksmith in Veselí nad Lužnicí. He was probably from a family of domineering enjoyers who abused opportunities and their influence on women. According to another statement, they were headed by two men. One of them called himself Moses and the other Peter, which perhaps shows that the first of them could be a judge in the group and the second a priest. They had a certain Mary among them. They executed this themselves, because despite the chief's ban, she slept with another man who apparently did not belong to the sect.  "Otherwise, they interacted with each other,"  continues to recount the Adamite cases biased by Eneiah Silvius, later Pope Pius,  "But it was not permissible to know a woman without Adam's consent. But as a man who had been aroused by desire for a woman, took her hand, and came to the leader, he said, 'My spirit is burning for this!'" The leader replied: and fill the earth. 'He also said that other people are slaves, but they and those who are born of them are free. "  In Žižek's warning circular, which has already been mentioned here, the following accusation also appears in the address of the picartas - adamites:  "Even the little girl they took with them had to be broken and commit adultery with them."  However, European civilization strongly condemned sex with children, perhaps that is why Žižka mentioned this information in his circular. The slander (if it was a slander) could embarrass the adamites in front of the public as much as possible.  

"Forty of them left the island,"  Eneáš Silvius Piccolomoni continues his report from the Czech Republic,  "He broke into the neighboring villages and killed with his sword more than two hundred peasants who were claimed to be the sons of the devil.  When Žižka heard this, although the criminal himself, he was terrified of the crime. It is in human nature that everyone sees human faults rather than their own, and the greatest crimes do not go unpunished for long; The avenger of evil is often able to see evil. So he went out with his army against them, and took the island, and destroyed all the adamites with the sword; When I was late in the Czech Republic, I heard from a leading nobleman  Oldřich of Rožmberk that he had a man and a woman of this sect in his captivity. The women allegedly publicly claimed that the person wearing the dress was not free, especially around the hips, and that they gave birth to him in prison. When he burned them with the men the following year, they bore the heat of the flames with laughter and singing. "  

For the sake of completeness, it remains to add that the leader of the picartes, Martin Húska-Loquis, first withdrew his "delusions" while torturing him, then he managed to escape, but after a dramatic persecution he was taken again.  "Intending to escape the hands of the people of Prague and the camps, he set out on his way to Moravia, where he came from, leading the priest with him  Prokop One-eyed, the same sect companion. When they reached Chrudim, they were detained by the governor of the city and placed in a log. The governor asked them peacefully how they thought about the sacred sacrament of the altar. When Martin called the Loquis blasphemously, saying that the body of Christ is in heaven and that he had only one body and no more, as the sacrifice on the altar takes place, said governor cannot bear the blasphemy against God, he struck him with his fist. And if Priest Ambrose had not intervened, they would both have been killed immediately by the heat of the fire. So they loaded them into wagons and took them to Hradec and then to Roudnice, where they were kept infected by heresy. There they were delivered to the hands of the executioners, and he burned their hips to the bowels to confess from whom they had their heresy. They are tortured in this way, they have given the names of some. And when they urged them to repent of their delusions and return to the unity of the Church, they said with a smile: with many people to be burned, and they urged them to ask the people standing there to make a humble request to God, and Martin answered: “We do not need those requests; let him beg for those who need them. ' Praise be to the Lord God, who catches wolves who want to invade his flock and, in a wonderful way, drives them away and destroys them so as not to infect others ... " 

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